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1. Be aware of the pest and diseases common in the area where the crop is to be grown, and plant varieties that are resistance or tolerance to them.

2.Start scouting field for pest infestation immediately after emergence of seeds and monitor their levels regularly to determine whether they are causing economic damage to warrant their control.

3.Plant early to avoid the high pest pressure that is experienced with late plantings.

4.Maize rotation with legumes can help with reducing weed, insect and disease pressure, enhance soil fertility and improve yields.

5.Under severe pest infestation, use pesticide judiciously.

6. Integration of all the methods above is critical for effective control.

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